Sheet Metal Bending Working Machinery
Sheet metal bending working machinery
China Metal bending Machinery
Bending is a metal forming process in which a force is applied to a piece of sheet metal, causing it to bend at an angle and form the desired shape. A bending operation causes deformation along one axis, but a sequence of several different operations can be performed to create a complex part. Bent parts can be quite small, such as a bracket, or up to 20 feet in length, such as a large enclosure or chassis. A bend can be characterized by several different parameters, shown in the image below.
The act of bending results in both tension and compression in the sheet metal. The outside portion of the sheet will undergo tension and stretch to a greater length, while the inside portion experiences compression and shortens. The neutral axis is the boundary line inside the sheet metal, along which no tension or compression forces are present. As a result, the length of this axis remains constant. The changes in length to the outside and inside surfaces can be related to the original flat length by two parameters, the bend allowance and bend deduction, which are defined below.
When bending a piece of sheet metal, the residual stresses in the material will cause the sheet to springback slightly after the bending operation. Due to this elastic recovery, it is necessary to over-bend the sheet a precise amount to achieve the desired bend radius and bend angle. The final bend radius will be greater than initially formed and the final bend angle will be smaller. The ratio of the final bend angle to the initial bend angle is defined as the springback factor, KS. The amount of springback depends upon several factors, including the material, bending operation, and the initial bend angle and bend radius.
Bending is typically performed on a machine called a press brake, which can be manually or automatically operated. For this reason, the bending process is sometimes referred to as press brake forming. Press brakes are available in a range of sizes (commonly 20-200 tons) in order to best suit the given application. A press brake contains an upper tool called the punch and a lower tool called the die, between which the sheet metal is located. The sheet is carefully positioned over the die and held in place by the back gauge while the punch lowers and forces the sheet to bend. In an automatic machine, the punch is forced into the sheet under the power of a hydraulic ram. The bend angle achieved is determined by the depth to which the punch forces the sheet into the die. This depth is precisely controlled to achieve the desired bend. Standard tooling is often used for the punch and die, allowing a low initial cost and suitability for low volume production. Custom tooling can be used for specialized bending operations but will add to the cost. The tooling material is chosen based upon the production quantity, sheet metal material, and degree of bending. Naturally, a stronger tool is required to endure larger quantities, harder sheet metal, and severe bending operations. In order of increasing strength, some common tooling materials include hardwood, low carbon steel, tool steel, and carbide steel.
While using a press brake and standard die sets, there are still a variety of techniques that can be used to bend the sheet. The most common method is known as V-bending, in which the punch and die are "V" shaped. The punch pushes the sheet into the "V" shaped groove in the V-die, causing it to bend. If the punch does not force the sheet to the bottom of the die cavity, leaving space or air underneath, it is called "air bending". As a result, the V-groove must have a sharper angle than the angle being formed in the sheet. If the punch forces the sheet to the bottom of the die cavity, it is called "bottoming". This technique allows for more control over the angle because there is less springback. However, a higher tonnage press is required. In both techniques, the width of the "V" shaped groove, or die opening, is typically 6 to 18 times the sheet thickness. This value is referred to as the die ratio and is equal to the die opening divided by the sheet thickness.
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